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Shuai jiao is a Chinese martial art   
Shuai jiao
Shuai jiao
Shuai jiao is a Chinese martial art which combines grappling and striking. It was only a style of sport wrestling, but later striking and blocking were added to make it the first Chinese martial art. It also refers to modern Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. The earliest Chinese term for wrestling was “jiao di" or horn butting, which refers to an ancient sport. The contestants wore horned headgear with which they attempted to butt their opponents. Legend stated that "jiao di" was used in 2697 BC by the Yellow Emperor's army to gore the soldiers of a rebel army led by Chi You. Later on, young people would play a similar game, emulating the contests of domestic cattle, without the headgear. Jiao di was described as an originating source of wrestling and latter forms of martial arts in China.

A grappling martial art was developed in the Zhou Dynasty was called "Jiao li". That was between the twelfth and third century BCE. An official part of Zhou military's training program under the order of the king, jiao li was considered to be the oldest existing Chinese martial art and is among the oldest systematic martial arts in the world. The throwing techniques with strikes, blocks, joint locks and attacks on pressure points were supplemented by Jiao li. These exercises were practiced by soldiers in the winter that also practiced archery and studied military strategy.

Shuai means “to throw onto the ground", while "jiao" may be one of two characters: the first and older which means “horns" and the second means “wrestle or trip using the legs". Chinese Shuai Jiao is always written using the more recent characters and should be translated as "to throw onto the ground through wrestling with legs". The use of the character is due to the fact that in the earliest form of Shuai Jiao, players wore helmet with horns and head-butting was allowed called 'Ciyou Xi'.

Shuai Jiao can be divided into the following styles: Beijing Style is in essence the lineage from the Manchu Buku style that was practised by the Imperial Palace Guard, Shan Pu Ying, literally the Expert in Wrestling Unit. The use of legs to kick and off-balance opponents is the main characteristics. This style is considered a gentler style than the Tianjin Style; Tianjin Style is the lineage of Ming Dynasty Shuai Jiao mixed with Manchu Buku. Its main characteristic is the use of legs to kick and off-balance. It was considered a harder and rougher style than the Beijing Style; Baoding Style is the lineage that is called Kuai Jiao (Fast Wrestling). Its main characteristic is the fast application of technique. The adaptation of Shaolin Quan was another characteristic from Ping Jingyi, a famous teacher of Shuai Jiao who learned Shaolin style from the Meng family of Nanguan County even though he was a Muslim Hui.

The three styles above are sometimes called Hebei Style Shuai Jiao or simply Shuai Jiao. Wrestlers usually wear their jacket called Dalian. Shanxi Style is the lineage of Song Dynasty Shuai Jiao. This is mainly practised in the counties between the mining city of Datong in northern Shanxi and the provincial capital Taiyuan in central Shanxi. Its main characteristic is leg catching techniques, as traditionally wrestlers wear only tight knee-length pants. Mongol Style is the lineage from Mongol Boke. Xinjiang Style is the lineage from various Turkic styles. Waist techniques were its main characteristic.

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